Soon Ann Putnam and Mercy Lewis were also reporting seeing "witches flying through the winter mist.
Proctor was hanged. Salem should warn us to think hard about how to best safeguard and improve our system of justice. Deliverance Hobbs became the second witch to confess, admitting to pinching three of the girls at the Devil's command and flying on a pole to attend a witches' Sabbath in an open field. The consistency of the two girls' accusations suggests strongly that the girls worked out their stories together.
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As the summer of warmed, the pace of trials picked up. Nurse was one of three Towne sistersall bihsop as witches, who were members of a Topsfield family that had a long-standing quarrel with the Putnam family. About one to two hundred other persons were arrested and imprisoned on witchcraft charges.
They were the last victims bisho the witch hunt. Defendants could, however, speak for themselves, produce evidence, and cross-examine their accusers. Yes, Tituba declared, she was a witch, and moreover she and four other witches, including Good and Osborn, had flown through the air on their poles.
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The widespread belief that witches targeted children made the doctor's diagnosis seem increasingly likely. Several jurors came forward to say that they were "sadly deluded and mistaken" in their judgments.
Norton contends that the enthusiasm of the Salem court in prosecuting the witchcraft cases owed in no small measure to the judges' desire to shift the "blame for their own inadequate defense of the frontier. Mather urged Stoughton and the other judges to credit confessions and admit "spectral evidence" testimony by afflicted persons that they had been visited by a suspect's specter.
One victim of the Salem witch hunt was not hanged, but rather pressed under heavy stones until his death.
Katherine Bishop (Earth)
InJohn Putnam, one of the most influential elders of Salem Village, invited Samuel Parrisformerly a marginally successful planter and merchant in Barbados, to preach in the Village church. In May ofPhips released from prison all remaining accused or convicted witches.
At Bishop's trial on June 2,a field hand testified that he saw Bishop's image stealing eggs and then saw her transform herself into a cat. No execution caused more unease in Salem than that of the village's ex-minister, George Burroughs.
The efforts proved futile. In a of cases, accusing families stood to gain property from the convictions of accused witches.
Not all defendants were as disreputable as Bridget Bishop. At the time, however, there was another theory to explain the girls' symptoms.
The degree to which defendants in Salem were able to take advantage of their modest protections varied considerably, depending on their own acuteness and their influence in the community. Many of the symptoms or convulsive ergotism seem to match hipl attributed to Betty Parris, but there is no way of knowing with any certainty if she in fact suffered from the disease--and the theory would not explain the afflictions suffered by others in Salem later in the year.
Most of the xhat lived to the south of, and were generally better off financially, than most of the accusers. Fast action, he decided, was required.
While many of the accused witches supported former minister George Burroughs, the families that included the accusers had--for the most part--played leading roles in forcing Burroughs to leave Salem. At the examinations, the girls described attacks by the specters of the three women, and fell into their by then perfected pattern of contortions when in the presence of one of the suspects.
Convulsive ergotism causes violent fits, a crawling sensation on the skin, vomiting, choking, and--most interestingly--hallucinations.
matude Dozens languished in jail for months without trials. His wife Elizabeth, who was also convicted of witchcraft, was spared execution because of her pregnancy reprieved "for the belly".
In a village where everyone believed that the devil was real, close at hand, and acted in the real world, the suspected affliction of the girls became an obsession. Jails approached capacity and the colony "teetered on the brink of chaos" when Governor Phips ni from England.
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The hallucinogenic drug LSD is a derivative of ergot. Had they seen Satan? Ann Putnam claimed that Burroughs bewitched soldiers during a failed military campaign against Wabanakis inthe first of a string of military disasters that could be blamed on an Indian-Devil alliance. The magistrates, in the common practice of the time, asked the same questions of each suspect over and over: Were they witches?
Mather's advice was heeded. Mather's and Willard's works were given to Governor Phips.